Conjunctions in Japanese

Once you have understood the basic sentence structure of Japanese, you may find yourself wondering how to make your sentences flow. The easiest way to do this is by making use of connecting words (aka conjunctions) to link two sentences or two clauses together.


Being as Kotobites is in the midst of the November Japanese Writing Challenge, I thought this would be a great time to post about the topic of conjunctions, known as 接続詞 in Japanese. I’ve listed some common conjunctions below under various categories to give you some ideas:

  • Showing a result or consequence (= therefore/ so in English): だから、それで、そのため
  • Giving a reason (= because): なぜなら、というのは
  • Showing a contradiction (= but/ however): が at the end of the clause; しかし、けれども
  • Providing additional information (= similarly, and then, furthermore): そして、それに、それから、しかも
  • Showing a contrast (= on the other hand): 一方、逆に
  • Rephrasing (= in other words): つまり、すなわち

I have shied away from using English where possible here as a lot of these conjunctions do not work in exactly the same way as their English counterparts.

For further information I recommend checking out the following resources:

The Japan Society of New York’s Waku Waku Japanese series has an episode giving a brief introduction to how conjunctions work:

Wasabi’s articles on Major Conjunctions in Japanese as well as Reverse Conditionals (which covers conjunctions and grammar points that express a contrast).

For those who are a bit more advanced, check out this page (in Japanese) on a website called Pothos which gives an overview of the types of conjunctions you are likely to come across. If you click on each word you get a definition and a few example sentences to show how it is used.


I hope you find this post useful – as always if you have any suggestions or feedback please let me know in the comments!



Kotobites November Writing Challenge: Week 1: 1st – 5th Nov


Welcome to the Kotobites November Japanese Writing Challenge. In case you missed it, please take a look my intro post on what this is and why I’m doing it – you can do as little or as much as you can!

Here are the writing prompts for Week 1 (up to 5th November):

1st Nov (Wed) 1日(水曜日)




Have you ever seen a ghost?

2nd Nov (Thur) 2日(木曜日)



What food are you good at making?

3rd Nov (Fri) 3日(金曜日)





What is your occupation/major? Why did you choose that occupation/major?

4th Nov (Sat) 4日(土曜日)



Where would you rather live, in the city or in the countryside?

stress red pencil

5th Nov (Sun) 5日(日曜日)



How do you relieve stress?


Hints for beginners

  • Looking to get your writing checked? I recommend Lang-8 (if you already have an account – unfortunately, they are no longer taking new registrations), HiNative or ask a friend/language partner.
  • Following the sentence structure of the question is the easiest way of constructing the answer. Feel free to expand on the questions as much as possible or adapting the question – whatever suits your stage of learning.

1st Nov:

〜ことがあります is a useful phrase for expressing something you have done before (as in ‘Have you ever been scuba diving?’).

2nd Nov:

得意 is similar in meaning to 上手(じょうず) meaning ‘to be good at (doing something)’.

You may prefer to use a different sentence structure such as ‘Xを作るのが得意です’.

3rd Nov:

Choose occupation or major depending on if you are working or studying.

When giving reasons for your answer you can use conjunctions such as 〜からです (verb before から is in plain form)

4th Nov:

You might want to use to show contrast between the city and the countryside by using a construction such as ‘XよりYのほうがZです’.

5th Nov:

In order to answer the question, you could change the sentence structure using the て form, such as 〜て、ストレスを解消します (I relieve stress by doing…).

Please let me know how you get on or if you have any suggestions for the 30 day challenge, otherwise I hope you enjoy 🙂

Using sentences to study Japanese (and other languages)

Studying using sentences is incredibly beneficial for studying any language for a couple of reasons:

  • It gets you used to sentence structure, which you can then adapt to use when speaking or writing
  • Helps you to learn vocabulary in context – important for words with similar meanings in your native language

This article from Fluent in 3 Months explains it better than I can, but the brain is good at spotting at remembering patterns. As we are learning to speak our first language, we hear sentences spoken by others around us and so we build up a bank of sentences for our native language(s) in our brains.

This is why it is very easy for us to spot when something sounds unnatural in our native language(s), even if we are not sure why. With learning a new language, we have to follow the same process of learning what phrases and sentences are natural or not.


Sometimes, you just know when something has been put into Google Translate

Studying sentences alongside grammar rules will help the grammar to stick in your mind more effectively. Once you’ve understood a grammar point, you can then focus on making sure that you can implement in in your own speaking/writing – which is why I think keeping a journal in Japanese is such a good idea.
Let’s say for example that you are studying counters in Japanese, and come across the counter ‘hai’ which is the counter for glasses.


If you also memorise the sentence [ビールを三杯ください/ ビールをさんばいください/bi-ru wo sanbai kudasai] meaning Please can I have three glasses of beer, you are not only memorising the counter ‘-杯/はい/hai’ but internalising several other Japanese grammar rules at the same time.

  • That after 三, -はい becomes ばい
  • That counters are used after the particle を
  • That ください can be used when making a request (especially when ordering food and drink)

You can then experiment with substituting in different vocabulary, for example using a different number with the same counter…

ビールを一杯 (いっぱい/ippai) ください


Or you can change the counter itself…

ビールを三本 (さんぼん/sanbon) ください


(Just like with -はい, the -ほん counter has a sound change to -ぼん when following 三).

Or you can change the drink to something else…

水 (みず/Mizu) を三杯ください


(NB: probably a good idea if you’ve been ordering beer all evening)

… and this is all by changing just one word in the original phrase we learnt!

With Japanese, context is key to understanding grammar and vocabulary, so I believe that studying using sentences is more important coming from English. Adding Japanese audio in the mix is even better for learning to distinguish similar words, especially as Japanese has different pitch accents for similar words.

So how can I implement this into my language study?

With new grammar points, try writing out an example sentence you already know to be correct, then try changing different vocabulary as in the example above. You can always ask on an app like HiNative or a friend to check your new sentences to make sure they still make sense.

When learning across new vocab, look the word up in a dictionary or ask a friend to give you an example of how that word is used in a sentence and write it down for review later.

When making your own flashcards (real or online), make sure to write these sentences together with the vocabulary. If you are using Anki for vocabulary study, you’ll notice that a lot of decks introduce sentences at the same time.

I also highly recommend Delvin Language, which offers sentence and listening practice at the same time!

Screenshot 2017-09-02 at 18.15.23

You can learn new vocabulary via sentences taken from real life speech in dramas and documentaries, with all furigana and meanings provided for words and grammar points you may not know yet.

I hope the above post has helped – if you have any questions or suggestions please let me know in the comments!

Japanese sign image source: with attribution By Info2Learn (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC BY-SA 4.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons


10 things about learning languages I wish I’d known 10 years ago

The Memrise Blog

I started learning languages as a serious hobby just over ten years ago. It started out as a slow and frustrating process, and I never truly believed that I would ever really be able to speak and understand any language as well as my native English.

Now I’ve studied more than fifteen languages, was named Britain’s most multilingual student in 2012, and have written a book called “How To Speak Any Language Fluently”. I am able to speak several languages very fluently, and at least get by in the many more.

If I had a time machine, here are ten things I’d tell myself ten years ago:

  1. Make mistakes, they are your friends

Sometimes just the thought of saying the wrong word would give me so much anxiety that I would just walk away, rather than risk looking stupid. Then I realised that running away was not helping the problem…

View original post 1,087 more words

Turning Thoughts into Action

(aka my first post!)

Hello world! This is officially my first post on my blog, so I will take the opportunity to tell you a little bit about myself…

My name is Stephanie and officially I have been learning Japanese for over half of my lifetime. I was incredibly lucky to attend a secondary school specialising in languages and started studying Japanese aged 11. I have always enjoyed learning languages but I caught the Japanese learning bug quite quickly, mainly because it was so different from anything I had come across before.

I initially had my heart set on a career using Economics but I was so eager to carry on with Japanese after studying it to A-level that I went on to complete a degree in Business Management & Japanese. I graduated some time ago now but have been trying hard to keep up my language skills ever since, and finally got round to passing JLPT N2 last summer. To goal now is get as close to fluent as I can whilst living in the UK and keeping up to date with current affairs, with the hope that I will be able to use this in my career in the future. The idea for my blog has been in the pipeline for a long time but I have finally decided to put my thoughts into action and get blogging about something I have been passionate about for such a long time.

Although there are so many more amazing resources out there for learning Japanese, my approach to learning the language has changed now that I am no longer studying it formally. This blog will be all about different approaches to the language learning journey as well as a way for me to document all of the resources that have helped me out on the way. I hope you stay tuned and you find something of use!