Studying more effectively with the Pomodoro technique

I have a confession to make – I am a serial procrastinator. As much as I love learning Japanese and blogging, there are days when I can’t seem to get round to doing either of them. There are also days when I set quite a lot of time aside to write a blog post for example, but only end up with a half-finished post.

If I am honest with myself, my lack of productivity on days like this is normally because of two things:

  1. I haven’t thought through what my goal actually is and what I need to get it done
  2. I pick up my phone to check an email and somehow end up wasting time on somewhere like Facebook/ Twitter/ Reddit

Fortunately, the Pomodoro technique has really helped to cut down on my “bad productivity days” not only with blogging but with language learning too!

 

About the Pomodoro technique

Pomodoro is the Italian word for ‘tomato’ and refers to those tomato shaped timers often used when cooking.

Time management expert Francesco Cirillo came up with the Pomodoro technique which has 6 easy steps:

  1. Choose a task you’d like to get done
  2. Set the Pomodoro for 25 minutes
  3. Work on the task until the Pomodoro rings
  4. When the Pomodoro rings, put a checkmark on a piece of paper
  5. Take a short break (5 minutes)
  6. Every 4 Pomodoros, take a long break (usually 20 minutes)

 

Benefits of the Pomodoro technique

There are numerous benefits to the Pomodoro technique:

  • It’s easier to get focused and stay focused – 25 minutes is long enough to get things done, but not so long that you get bored.
  • Avoid distractions such as social media (you can check them on your breaks of course!).
  • Short breaks give your brain time to recharge – studying for a long time without breaks is counterproductive.
  • You soon work out how much time you need to dedicate to longer tasks. This is especially good if you have a deadline coming up!
  • Easy to track how time has been spent. Tracking time spent is a great way to make sure that you are spending time working towards the goals that are relevant to you.

I had been using the Pomodoro technique for other tasks that I struggle to motivate myself for such as job searching and tidying my room. It was only recently that I realised that it can be easily applied to language learning too.

Language learning requires a lot of energy, and sustaining the level of concentration needed to study effectively becomes more difficult over longer study sessions. From my own experience, studying for long periods of time without a proper break usually leads to frustration and burnout.

 

How I use Pomodoro for Japanese study

For me, the Pomodoro technique is particularly useful when I am having to work towards specific goals, such as studying grammar for the JLPT or working on improving my pronunciation. For regular daily study, I have a series of mini goals that I spend 10-15 minutes on and tick off as I go along (see my Habits over Goals post).

I particularly struggle with studying for the JLPT – summoning the motivation to study grammar, drill vocab and do mock tests can be extremely difficult, even when the test is only a few days away. This is an example of how I am using Pomodoros for my JLPT prep (I am working towards the JLPT N1 exam in December):

 

Before I start a session, I decide on a specific goal and how I am going to achieve the goal.

For example, I will spend 25 minutes reviewing JLPT grammar points from my Kanzen Master textbook. I usually stick to one learning resource only, as referring to more than one usually leads to procrastination.

 

I then set the timer to 25 minutes and prepare to study

At this point, I also make sure I have my noise-canceling headphones, some water, and any other tools I might need within easy reach.

I choose to listen to music during my Pomodoro study sessions. I always used to find music distracting, but then I realised that I absolutely cannot listen to music with words, because I usually start singing along. There are some great instrumental videos on Youtube if you search “study music” – my personal favourite things to listen to are Ghibli soundtracks and chilled hip hop.

 

Work on task for 25 mins, then take a short break

As soon as I start playing my study music, I know it’s time to get focused!

Sometimes I extend the Pomodoro length to 30 or 35 minutes if I feel like I am in deep focus, and taking a break after 25 minutes would be counterproductive. If I do this, then I usually reduce the number of Pomodoros accordingly.

I make sure that on my breaks that I physically get up and take a short walk, drink some water and grab a snack if I am hungry.

 

Complete 3 or 4 Pomodoros, then take a long break.

Review progress made and make notes for next session

I think it is important to look back on your session and review any issues you came across. The questions that I often ask myself include:

Did I identify some kanji/ vocabulary that I need to review?

Do I need to refer to another resource to clarify my understanding of a grammar point?

By doing this, I can make adjustments for my next session that will help me work more effectively.

 

How I track my Pomodoros

 

One of the best things about the Pomodoro technique is that the only tool you need is a timer. Having said that, there are a lot of apps out there that can help with tracking your Pomodoro sessions. Here are a couple of apps that I personally use:

 

Google Chrome Extension – Marinara: Pomodoro Assistant

I use Google Chrome as my browser, and there is a simple but extremely useful Chrome extension called Marinara that I use for blogging (as I normally need to be connected to the internet!)

Screenshot 2018-06-24 at 12.07.28

The icon on the far right shows a Pomodoro in progress

By clicking on the Marinara icon I can jump straight into a Pomodoro session. When each session is done, I get a popup to remind me to take a short or long break depending on how many Pomodoros I have completed.

Marinara has a countdown timer, which I find motivating when I feel my concentration slipping – knowing that I only have a couple of minutes to go helps to keep me going!

Screenshot 2018-06-24 at 12.06.36

You can adjust the length of the Pomodoros and how the extension alerts you to the end of a Pomodoro if you wish. Marinara also tracks your Pomodoro activity which is quite nice too.

 

Pomotodo App (iOS, Android, Mac, Windows)

When it comes to offline Japanese study sessions, I make use of Pomotodo. By creating an account, you can make to-do lists and track Pomodoros completed; these can then be synced to track your productivity across multiple platforms.

Pomotodo also has a few other useful features. For example, the mobile version allows you to block the use of certain apps whilst a Pomodoro is in progress. You can set daily, weekly or monthly goals and also see what times of the day or week you are most productive

Pomotodo is very user-friendly and I love the clean, simple design. The app is free but has a Pro version costing $3.90 per month – I don’t think that the Pro version adds enough value to be worth purchasing it though.

 

Using the Pomodoro technique has confirmed to me that the most important thing is not the length of time spent on a task, but rather how you use the time spent. Defining what goals you have and how you are going to achieve them is also key to using your time effectively. I only wish I had come across this technique before I last took the JLPT!

Do you have any time management hacks (for language learning or otherwise)? Let me know in the comments!

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The Best 7 Android Apps for learning Japanese

I review Japanese learning apps on this blog fairly often, but in reality there are only a small number of Japanese learning apps that I have regularly used on my language journey so far. There are also a few apps that I wish I’d had access to when I was a beginner. For that reason, I thought I would put together a list of the best Android apps out there for learning Japanese!

The best thing is that these apps are either free or available at a low cost. As I almost exclusively use Android devices, this list was made with Android users in mind, but actually, many of these are available on the Apple Store too.

 

top-android-apps-learning-japanese

 

 

1) An app to introduce you to Japanese: Lingodeer

Cost: free; also available on iOS

 

If you like the idea of using an app like Duolingo, then I recommend trying out Lingodeer instead. Lingodeer was initially aimed at those learning Mandarin, Korean or Japanese (French, Spanish, German, Portuguese and Vietnamese are also available) and so the lessons are tailored towards these languages in a better way than Duolingo.

Lingodeer starts by teaching hiragana and katakana, which makes it a great choice for absolute beginners. Like Duolingo, the app has a number of lessons increasing in complexity covering a number of different themes. Each lesson starts out with some grammar notes (called ‘Learning Tips’), then a number of smaller topics covering a few grammar points and vocabulary under the given theme. You also have the ability to toggle the use of kanji, furigana and romaji within the lessons if you wish.

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When it comes to the lesson quizzes, the app tests your understanding in a few different ways. Successfully passing the quizzes earns you XP, and allows you to move on to the next lesson. Similarly, there isn’t a heavy reliance on English for learning new vocabulary; instead, the focus is on using lots of images to convey meanings. There is a ‘Test Out’ feature which allows you to skip ahead if you can pass the tests.

I wouldn’t necessarily recommend using Lingodeer as a resource on its own, but I think it is a great way to supplement learning using another textbook. Alternatively, I think it is a nice app to use if you have taken a break from Japanese and perhaps want to review the basics before starting new material.

 

2) The textbook app: Human Japanese

Cost: Human Japanese Lite is free, full version £8.99; also available on iOS

 

Speaking of textbook style apps, I would highly recommend the app Human Japanese.

This app has a textbook style app that takes you through hiragana, katakana and the basics of Japanese grammar. All aspects of the language are explained in a very clear and straightforward manner, imparting a lot of information designed to give as much context as possible to what you are learning. The grammar lessons are also supplemented with relevant information on Japanese culture – you cannot understand the language without understanding the culture after all!

This short video gives you an overview of what Human Japanese is all about:

A lot of time and effort has clearly gone into Human Japanese – the quality of the app is great. All example sentences have crisp audio and example sentences have ‘ingredients’ which break down the sentence into its component parts, which is useful as sentences get more complex.

The full version of the app is not free and requires a one-off payment, but there is plenty of free content for Japanese newbies to work through to see if the app is appropriate for them before making a commitment. Looking at the content of the textbook, Human Japanese provides a solid foundation on which learners can continue to build on. I’ve written about Human Japanese in a previous post so I recommend checking that out if you would like to learn more.

 

3) The best Japanese dictionary app: Akebi

Cost: free

 

I have tried a number of free Japanese dictionary apps available on Android, but Akebi is by far my favourite. Again, this is another app that I have written a post about on this blog.

The sheer number of features that Akebi has makes it a great learner friendly app. These include:

  • Inbuilt Japanese keyboard – no worrying about switching keyboards just to look something up
  • Detailed kanji information (including frequency, JLPT level, words containing that kanji)
  • Handwriting recognition and ability to search by radicals
  • Deconjugation – if you look up a verb in the te-form, it will find the verb in its dictionary form along with meanings and other useful information
  • Full functionality offline, perfect for when I am avoiding the internet during study sessions!
  • Example sentences

One of my favourite features relates to Anki; whenever I use the app to look up new words, I can immediately add them to a flashcard deck of my choice in Anki to review later.

Overall, I find that it has the right balance of user-friendly interface and powerful features that make it the perfect companion for Japanese learners at all levels.

 

4) The best app for practicing Japanese with native speakers: HelloTalk

Cost: free; also available on iOS

 

One of the biggest issues Japanese learners tend to have if they are not living in Japan is lack of access to native speakers. Fortunately, language exchange apps like HelloTalk are the next best thing to address this issue.

When you sign up for an account, you can select the languages you are interested in learning, as well as the languages you can speak. You can then post a message to native speakers of the language you are learning and find an exchange partner. When speaking with your language partner, you can post in your target language or record audio/ have a video call.

HelloTalk has expanded into a sort of social network for language learners. You can now post status updates on your profile called ‘Moments’, which other members can correct any language mistakes for you.

The above Youtube video by Reina Scully gives a good overview of how the app can be used to study Japanese.

HelloTalk has a couple of handy features for language learners. For example, as Reina mentions in her video, the Translate feature allows you to see translations from your target language by tapping any word or phrase. In addition, the Notepad feature also enables you to save a message or recording for later practice.

I think HelloTalk is a great way to find a language partner or even to practice your reading skills by reading other users’ Moments.

 

5) The best reading assistant app: TangoRisto

Cost: free, ad free version requires one off payment of £4.29; also available on iOS

 

Reading in Japanese can be a scary experience at first, but TangoRisto is a great app to build your confidence. TangoRisto draws together articles from NHK News Easy among other sources which you can read via the app.

Screenshot 2017-09-12 at 20.09.14

As you can see from the screenshots, the interface is crisp, clean and very user friendly. Once in an article, a quick tap of a word brings up its reading and meaning. Like Akebi, tapping a conjugated verb will bring up the dictionary form of the verb with a note to indicate the form it has within the text (eg. passive tense, past tense). You can then bookmark these words to revise in the Vocabulary Review part of the app.

I like the ability to only highlight and/or show the furigana for words at certain JLPT levels as chosen in the settings, as well as the ability to save articles for offline reading. There is also a Text Analyzer tool, where you can paste Japanese text into the textbox; by then clicking ‘Analyze’, you can click on any word to find its readings and meanings.

Considering that this app is free to use, it is a quality resource for Japanese reading practice. It is definitely an app that I wish had been around sooner, especially when preparing for the JLPT tests!

I have a post reviewing TangoRisto which might be worth reading if you want to know more about the app.

 

6) The best app for vocabulary reviews: Anki

Cost: free; also available on iOS (for a price)

 

I haven’t always been a fan of Anki, but it is on my list because when used correctly it can be a very powerful tool. Whilst there is a free Anki app available on Android, Anki is available on a number of mobile and desktop platforms.

Anki (anki is the Japanese word for ‘memorisation’) is a spaced repetition flashcard app that has a high degree of customisation. Putting together your own flashcard decks tailored to the type of Japanese content you want to study (ie. from your favourite TV show, video game or novel) is a great way to learn Japanese and stay motivated.

There is a bit of time required to experiment with what kind of flashcard set up works best for you. If making your own flashcard decks sounds like too much trouble, there are some great flashcard decks available for download via the Shared Decks. Some of my favourite shared decks are the Kanji Damage deck and the Core 2000 vocabulary decks.

This video by Landon Epps gives a nice overview of some of the features Anki has and how Japanese learners can use it to review vocabulary.

Anki is a great app because it can be used to help memorise all sorts of things, not just the Japanese language. If you like looking at data, there are all sorts of statistics you can look into regarding your learning and progress for each flashcard deck.

 

7) Best app for Kanji: Kanji Study

Cost: limited content is free, full app costs £11.99; older version of app available on iOS

 

If you are looking for an app to specifically help you with kanji, look no further than Kanji Study. I love the user interface, and there are so many features to help you customise your kanji learning experience.

You can choose to tackle kanji in any order of your choice, but the default is the order in which Japanese children learn Joyo kanji at school by year. You can then break down each level into smaller groups of your choice. In the ‘Study’ mode, each kanji has its own page showing the stroke order, radicals, common readings, useful vocabulary and example sentences to help reinforce the meaning. If you long press a word, you then get the option to add it to an Anki deck or look it up via another website such as jisho.org – both very useful features!

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You can then choose to review the kanji via flashcards, multiple choice quizzes or writing challenges. These tests are highly customisable so that you can tailor your study sessions to focus on your weaknesses. The app also allows you to practice writing kanji. I like that the app uses a very readable kanji font which is much closer to how kanji would be handwritten rather than a typed font.

It is possible to set a daily study target, and you can set notification reminders to make sure you don’t miss a study session.

The beginner level kanji content is free, however access to all kanji requires a one-off cost of £11.99. All in all, I highly recommend this app because the quality of the app is top-notch.

 

Honourable mentions

There are a lot of apps which are great alternatives to some of the apps on my top 7 list:

Hello Talk -> HiNative

HiNative is fairly similar to Hello Talk, but I find HiNative better for learning about the current trends or asking questions about the culture of your target language. You can read my full review of HiNative here.

 

Anki -> Memrise/ iKnow

If you prefer an app that makes use of spaced repetition with a more user-friendly interface, then I recommend checking out Memrise or iKnow.

Memrise has its own starter courses for the Japanese language, however, I cannot comment on their quality as I have not tried this out for myself yet. Instead, I like to use the Memrise app to study some of the courses created by other users for certain aspects of Japanese, such as JTalkOnline’s keigo course. Recently Memrise has made it difficult to search for these user-generated vocabulary courses (via the app anyway – they are still easy to find via the website), which is a slight annoyance.

iKnow requires a monthly subscription (a free trial is available), but I think the Core 1000/ 3000/ 6000 vocabulary decks help build a good grounding in Japanese knowledge if you are not interested in making your own vocabulary flashcards.

 

Akebi -> Tangorin

Tangorin is another free dictionary app available on both Android and iOS, which also works fully offline.

 

TangoRisto -> Mondo

Mondo is another reading assistant app aimed to help Japanese learners. Mondo tends to pull its reading content from different sources compared to TangoRisto, and there is some original articles and dialogues that can only be read on the app. I’ve covered how Mondo works in an earlier blog post.

 

So that is my list of the best apps available for learning Japanese on Android. Do you agree with my list, or is there a glaring omission? Please tell me in the comments 🙂

Japanese Onomatopoeia for the Summer

At the moment, Japan (as well as a lot of other countries) is experiencing extremely high summer temperatures. Aside from the all too common 暑いですね (あついですね; It’s hot, isn’t it?), you might be struggling with ways to talk about the warmest season.

As I wrote in a previous post, onomatopoeia is a very important part of expressing yourself in Japanese. With this in mind, I have put together a list of my favourite summer-themed onomatopoeia:

japanese-summer-onomatopoeia.jpg

 

Feeling hot, hot, hot

Japan is well known for its 蒸し暑い (むしあつい; hot and humid) summers. The first group of words relate to the uncomfortable feeling of dealing with the heat.

The first, べたべた is generally used to refer to something sticky or gooey. It is a common word used in the summertime to describe the icky feeling of being sweaty and your clothes stick to you. You could also use the onomatopoeia だらだら, which when used with 汗 (あせ; sweat) has the meaning of sweating profusely:

Eg. だらだら汗(あせ)が出(で)る                sweat is pouring out

 

Another common phrase you might hear is 夏バテ (なつバテ), which is a combination of 夏(なつ) meaning summer and ばてる, meaning to be tired/ exhausted. It is used to describe that feeling of fatigue and lethargy you get when it it constantly hot outside. This SavvyTokyo article has some great tips on do’s and don’ts when coping with 夏バテ!

 

Staying cool as a cucumber?

With the heat and humidity, keeping cool by any means possible is essential. The word ひんやり can be used to talk about something which feels nice and cold, especially on a hot day. This covers things like cooler pads that you put on your bed or pillowcase, or the feeling of a cool breeze on a hot day, as well as food and drink.

There’s nothing better than a cold glass of juice or a bottle of beer on a summer’s day. Fortunately, there are lots of ways to describe that feeling with onomatopoeia in Japanese.

For instance, キンキン refers to a shrill sound, but it can also be used to describe something that is cold and refreshing.

Eg. キンキンに冷(ひ)えたジュース             ice cold juice

 

To stay cool, it is highly likely you would be regularly tucking into something しゃりしゃり or ガリガリ. しゃりしゃり indicates something is crunchy; summer foods often have a crunchy texture due to ice or crunchy vegetables – think of a slushie, a salad, a sorbet or かき氷 (かきごおり, kakigoori). Kakigoori is shaved ice topped with a flavoured syrup and sometimes condensed milk. Popular flavours include melon, strawberry and the Blue Hawaii (usually soda or ramune).

 

If you see a flag with the above kanji on, you’ve found a kakigoori stand! Image by Rog01 (Nara 2010) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

ガリガリ is often for someone who looks very skinny, but is also used for something that is hard and crunchy, eg. an ice lolly. There is a brand of ice lollies called ガリガリ君 (Garigari kun) which are a cheap treat and have been popular for decades!

 

Sights and sounds of summer

The last couple of onomatopoeia are those that really help to encapsulate summer in Japan.

Unfortunately, summer means plenty of bugs to contend with. The insect most strongly associated with summer in Japan has got to be the cicada (known as 蝉・せみ).

If you’ve been to Japan or watched any TV show/ film/ anime that is set during the summer months, the みーんみーん sound of a cicada is probably very familiar. The video below talks about cicadas in more detail:

 

Another iconic sound of summer in Japan is the sound of 花火 (はなび; fireworks).

A lot of festivals take place during the summer months, where there are lots of opportunities to play games and eat street food from a variety of stalls. Along with this, there are often 花火大会 (はなびたいかい; firework displays) which take place in the evening.

Fireworks have a long tradition in Japan and were originally used as a way to help ward off bad spirits. If you are in Japan in the summer, seeing fireworks is a must! The onomatopoeia どんどん or ドーン can be used to describe the sound of fireworks in Japanese.

This post could very easily have been much longer – onomatopoeia is such an interesting part of the Japanese language.

What is your favourite summer word (in Japanese or any other language)? Please tell me in the comments section!

Top 20 Japanese Verbs to learn for Beginners

When I first started learning Japanese, I had no idea which verbs to learn. With that in mind, I have put together a list of the top 20 Japanese verbs to learn when starting out with Japanese.

For each verb, I have tried to give a brief overview of how they are used. This isn’t intended to be an in-depth guide, so if you want to learn more I recommend the resources listed at the end of this post.

The list below shows the verbs in the polite (-masu) form, but I have given the plain/dictionary form below. One good thing about Japanese is that there are very few irregular verbs (which all happen to be in this list!), and I have indicated these verbs below.

います imasu

Meaning: to be; exist (used for animate objects, ie. people and animals)

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> いて ite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: いる iru
  • Kanji?: 居る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle を or に

 

Example sentences:

ねこはへやにいますneko wa heya ni imasu

The cat is in the room.

にわにいぬがいますniwa ni inu ga imasu

There is a dog in the garden.

 

あります arimasu

Meaning: to exist (used for inanimate objects, ie. those not ); to have

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> あって atte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: ある aru
  • Kanji?: 有る・在る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle が or に (definitely not を!)

 

Example sentences:

ペンはつくえのうえにありますpen wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu

The pen is on top of the desk.

 

ほんがみっつありますhon ga mittsu arimasu

I have three books.

 

します shimasu

Meaning: to do

  • Irregular verb
  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> して)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: する suru
  • Kanji?: none (always used with hiragana)
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

きのう、ともだちとテニスをしましたkinou, tomodachi to tenisu wo shimashita

I played tennis with my friends yesterday.

 

まいにちにほんごをべんきょうしますmainichi nihongo wo benkyou shimasu

I study Japanese every day.

 

いきます ikimasu

Meaning: to go

  • (Slightly) irregular verb; see て form conjugation
  • Verb type: godan (て form -> いって itte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: いく iku
  • Kanji?: 行く
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

きょうがっこうにいきますkyou gakkou ni ikimasu

I am going to school today.

 

らいねんにほんにいきますrainen nihon ni ikimasu

I am going to Japan next year.

 

きます kimasu

Meaning: to come

  • Irregular verb
  • Verb type: godan (て form -> きて kite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: くる kuru
  • Kanji?: 来る
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

BABYMETALはよくアメリカにきますBabymetal wa yoku amerika ni kimasu

Babymetal often come to America.

 

ともだちがいえにきましたtomodachi ga ie ni kimashita

A friend came to my house.

 

なります narimasu

Meaning: to become

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> なって natte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: なる naru
  • Kanji?: 成る (note: the kanji not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

もうすぐはるになりますmousugu haru ni narimasu

It will soon be(come) spring.

 

せんせいになりたいです。 sensei ni naritai desu

I want to become a teacher.

 

みます mimasu

Meaning: to see, look at

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> みて mite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: みる miru
  • Kanji?: 見る
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

かのじょがテレビをみますwatashi ga terebi wo mimasu

She watches TV.

 

しゃしんをみてください。 shashin wo mite kudasai

Please look at the photograph.

 

はなします hanashimasu

Meaning: to speak, to talk to

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> はなして hanashite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: はなす hanasu
  • Kanji?: 話す
  • Often used with the particle を or と

 

Example sentences:

でんわでははとはなしますdenwa de haha to hanashimasu

I speak with my mom on the telephone.

 

えいごとスペインごをはなしますeigo to supeingo wo hanashimasu

I speak English and Spanish.

 

あいます aimasu

Meaning: to meet

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> あって atte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: あう au
  • Kanji?: 会う
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

あしたえきでともだちにあいますashita eki de tomodachi ni aimasu

Tomorrow I will meet my friend at the train station.

 

らいしゅうかれにあいたいです。 raishuu kare ni aitai desu

I want to meet him next week.

 

つくります tsukurimasu

Meaning: to make

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> つくって tsukutte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: つくる tsukuru
  • Kanji?: 作る
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

ばんごはんをつくりますbangohan wo tsukurimasu

I make dinner.

 

ちちがわたしにドレスをつくりましたchichi ga watashi ni doresu wo tsukurimashita

My dad made me a dress.

 

つかいます tsukaimasu

Meaning: to use

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> つかって tsukatte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: つかう tsukau
  • Kanji?: 使う
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

せんせいのじしょをつかいますSensei no jisho wo tsukaimasu

I use my teacher’s dictionary.

 

あねはくつにおかねをたくさんつかいます。 Ane ha kutsu ni okane wo takusan tsukaimasu

My older sister spends a lot of money on shoes.

 

わかります wakarimasu

Meaning: to know, understand

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> わかって wakatte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: わかる wakaru
  • Kanji?: 分かる (note: kanji is not often used, and you will most likely see it written in hiragana
  • Often used with the particle を or が

 

Example sentences:

にほんごをすこしわかりますnihongo wo sukoshi wakarimasu

I understand a bit of Japanese.

 

フランスごがわかりませんfuransugo wo wakarimasen

I don’t know/ understand French.

 

たべます tabemasu

Meaning: to eat

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> たべて)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: たべる taberu
  • Kanji?: 食べる
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

まいしゅうピザをたべますmaishuu piza wo tabemasu

I eat pizza every week.

 

ゆうべラーメンをたべましたyuube raamen wo tabemashita

I ate ramen yesterday evening.

 

 

のみます nomimasu

Meaning: to drink

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> のんで nonde)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: のむ nomu
  • Kanji?: 飲む
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

さけをのみませんsake wo nomimasen

I do not drink alcohol.

 

まいあさ、みずをのみますmaiasa mizu wo nomimasu

I drink water every morning.

 

かいます kaimasu

Meaning: to buy

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かって katte)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かう kau
  • Kanji?: 買う
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

スーパーでやさいをかいますsuupaa de yasai wo kaimasu

I buy vegetables at the supermarket.

 

しんぶんをかいませんshinbun wo kaimasen

I don’t buy newspapers.

 

かきます kakimasu

Meaning: to write

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かいて kaite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かく kaku
  • Kanji?: 書く
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

まいしゅうかんじをかきますmaishuu kanji wo kakimasu

I write kanji every week.

 

しょうせつをかいていますshousetsu wo kaiteimasu

I am writing a novel.

 

ねます nemasu

Meaning: to sleep

  • Verb type: ichidan (て form -> ねて nete)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: ねる neru
  • Kanji?: 寝る
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

まいにち10じにねますmainichi juuji ni nemasu

I go to bed at 10 o’clock every day.

 

きのう7じにねましたkinou shichi ji nemashita

Yesterday I went to bed at 7 o’clock

 

ききます kikimasu

Meaning: to listen to

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> きいて kiite)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: きく
  • Kanji?: 聞く
  • Often used with the particle を

 

Example sentences:

せいとはせんせいのしじにききますseito wa sensei no shiji ni kikimasu

The pupils listen to the teacher’s instructions.

 

おんがくをよくききます。 Ongaku wo yoku kikimasu

I often listen to music.

 

かえります kaerimasu

Meaning: to return home

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> かえって kaette)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: かえる kaeru
  • Kanji?: 帰る
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

あしたイギリスにかえりますashita igirusu ni kaerimasu

I will go back to the UK tomorrow.

 

きのうごご10じにうちにかえりましたkinou gogo juuji ni uchi ni kaerimashita

I got home at 10 pm yesterday.

 

のります norimasu

Meaning: to get on, ride (eg. a vehicle)

  • Verb type: godan (て form -> のって)
  • Plain/ dictionary form: のる noru
  • Kanji?: 乗る
  • Often used with the particle に

 

Example sentences:

まいあさでんしゃにのりますmaiasa densha ni norimasu

I catch the train every morning.

 

どこでバスをのりますか。 doko de basu ni norimasu ka?

Where do you get on the bus?

 

20basicjapaneseverbspin

 

So this is my list – choosing just 20 is tricky, but I think with the above you will be able to practice expressing a variety of things in Japanese.

If you are just starting your Japanese journey, I recommend looking at the following resources to learn more about the different types of Japanese verbs and how they are conjugated:

Podcast Recommendation: Manga Sensei

Today’s podcast recommendation is the Manga Sensei podcast, a podcast that offers great Japanese lessons in just 5 minutes each episode!

The podcast is hosted by John (Manga Sensei) who is our helpful guide to the Japanese language. Most of the Manga Sensei episodes are language-focused, where each episode covers a different grammar point.

Grammar point focused episodes will provide an explanation of the grammar point – for example, how to conjugate it and when it used, alongside a few examples.

Outside of grammar study, the Manga Sensei podcast also has interviews with people who regularly use Japanese, normally people who live in Japan and/or write about the Japanese language. There are also episodes that focus on helpful language learning tips for Japanese (or any language) such as bridging the gap between intermediate and advanced (episode from May 14, 2018).

 

Why I like the Manga Sensei podcast

One of the best things about the podcast is how much John sensei manages to cover in a relatively short period of time. Somehow in just five-minute episodes, he has been able to fit in some interesting insight on how grammar points are used, without it feeling too overwhelming. Not only that but with over 250 episodes, there is plenty of content to listen to – new episodes are also uploaded on a daily basis! The type of Japanese covered in the grammar episodes includes more informal speech and is generally more natural than what you might get from a textbook.

In addition, in every episode, John comes across as an enthusiastic teacher who really wants everyone to do the very best with Japanese study. The Manga Sensei ethos is all about knowing you’ll make mistakes and doing it anyway, which I think is the best way to approach languages.

The episodes have not been produced in order of grammar difficulty so you may find yourself searching around for a little while if there is a particular grammar point you are stuck on (if you are a beginner to intermediate Japanese learner, he has most likely covered the grammar point in an episode already!).

 

Who I recommend the podcast for

I think that this podcast is good for anyone studying Japanese, as the grammar points covered range from the basics up to more sophisticated aspects of the language.

I always like to hear about the same grammar points explained in different ways (as I think it helps to really deepen your understanding of how certain aspects of the language work), and so I think the podcast is a nice compliment to someone who is taking classes or self-studying using a textbook. I also find that the interview episodes are really fun and perfect for when I need some study motivation!

You can find the episodes on the Manga Sensei website, or via any podcasting app (just search for “Manga Sensei”. There’s also a Youtube channel with a handful of videos too.

I definitely suggest checking out The Manga Sensei site. Every week there are short manga posted on the website that are designed to help you learn Japanese.

I’d probably recommend these short manga to upper beginners as there is no furigana on the manga itself, although each panel comes with a vocabulary list and helpful notes on the language used.

If you are intending to read manga in Japanese at some point, these notes are pretty useful – you’ll note that the language used is closer to how Japanese is spoken rather than what you might learn in a formal setting.

Aside from that, the website’s blog has a number of posts on the Japanese language (expanding upon a lot of the topics covered in the grammar episodes) and culture, which is all very useful for learners.

Have you tried this podcast? What did you think? Let me know in the comments!

Cultural Kotoba: Tanabata

cultural_kotoba_tanabata

Tanabata is just around the corner (in some parts of Japan anyway), and it might be one of my favourite celebrations in Japan.

Tanabata is not a national holiday, but it is widely celebrated around the country. To me, this festival is truly a sign that summer has arrived. I just love the colourful celebrations at Tanabata, so decided to write a bit about it today.

Where does Tanabata originate from?

One of the things I was curious about is why Tanabata is written in Japanese as 七夕. 七 is normally read as しち・なな (shichi/nana) and 夕 is normally read as ゆう (yuu), so where did the name Tanabata come from?

Actually, what we now know as Tanabata was a festival called Qixi originating in China and was brought to Japan in the 8th century. Tanabata is thought to originally refer to a special cloth (棚機・たなばた) offered to a god to pray for a good harvest of rice crops in a separate ritual. The timing of this offering coincided with Qixi, and so the two festivals merged. Once merged, the festival was still called tanabata but the kanji used was written as (七夕; meaning “evening of the seventh”) referring to the timing of the festival, which at one point was read as しちせき (shichiseki).

The timing of Tanabata is based on the traditional Japanese calendar; it is usually celebrated on the 7th night on the 7th month (ie. 7th July in the Gregorian calendar). However it can be celebrated during early August; during Japan’s transition from the Chinese lunar calendar to the current Gregorian calendar, the definition of the first month can vary by over 4 weeks and so August is sometimes treated as the 7th month in the calendar.

The Story of Tanabata

The Tanabata story is based on the Chinese folk tale “The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl”. Here is my rough summary of the story:

Orihime ((織姫・おりひめ), literally “weaving princess”) lives by the Milky Way and works everyday weaving fabric. Because of her work, she doesn’t really have time to meet anyone and so her father, the Sky King(also known as Tentei/ 天帝・てんてい), arranges for her to meet Hikoboshi ((彦星・ひこぼし), the cow herder) who works on the other side of the Milky Way. They fall in love immediately and get married, but they also begin to neglect their work duties.

The Sky King is angry about this and takes his daughter back to the other side of the Milky Way as punishment. Orihime is extremely upset and pleads with her father to let her see Hikoboshi. The Sky King then agrees that they can meet on the 7th day of the 7th month every year as long as Orihime works hard.

If you want to try reading the story in simple Japanese, you can find it on the children’s story website Hukumusume here.

The celebration is therefore of the one night in the year when husband and wife are allowed to meet. Having said that, it is thought that the star-crossed lovers can only meet if the weather is clear on July 7th!

How is Tanabata celebrated?

Laika_ac_Tanabata_Wishes_(7472067930)

By Laika ac from USA (Tanabata Wishes) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons)

It is customary to write wishes on small strips of paper known as tanzaku (短冊・たんざく) which are then hung on bamboo along with other colourful decorations. Bamboo is culturally significant because it is a strong and durable plant and therefore symbolises prosperity.

Other decorations include:

  • Paper cranes known as 折鶴 (おりづる・oridzuru) which represent longevity
  • 吹き流し (ふきながし・fukinagashi) – these are streamers meant to represent the threads that Orihime weaves.
  • 網飾り(あみかざり・amikazari) – decorations that represent fishing nets. These are used to wish for an abundance of fish.
  • Purse or pouch shaped origami to wish for good luck with money

The city of Sendai in Miyagi prefecture is well known for its Tanabata celebrations, and lots of tourists flock there to enjoy the event. It is customary in Sendai to eat 素麺 (そうめん・soumen), a type of noodles usually served cold with a dipping sauce which makes it a refreshing meal in the summertime.

If you want to test your understanding of Tanabata in Japanese, JapanesePod101 have done a great video outlining Tanabata and its customs (recommended for intermediate learners and up!).

What is your favourite national holiday or festival (in Japan, or another country)? Please leave me a comment!

Ways to stay motivated in your Japanese studies

Learning Japanese (or any language) is a long journey, no matter what articles you read that promise fluency in 6 months.

Inevitably, there are going to be times along our journey when we lack the motivation to keep going. I’ve been a little bit unwell recently and after a few days rest I have found it hard to motivate myself to get studying again.

Here are some of the things I try to do when I need to find motivation to study Japanese:

dont-give-up-3403779_1920.jpg

 

  • Watch a video of something that reminds you why you started learning in the first place.

It’s easy to lose sight of what initially drew us to our target language. Whether it be the culture, connecting to your roots, or to watch your favourite TV show without subtitles, there’s so many things that learning another language gives us an opportunity to experience. Whatever it is, watching a video relating to that topic is a great way of getting you back on track.

I personally find watching videos of people who have been able to learn Japanese to a high level really motivate me to keep studying. Kemushichan’s videos are always inspiring for me; my other personal favourites include Dogen and Renehiko.

 

  • Visualise your goals.

Take some time to think about your language learning goals. What is it that you want to achieve in the future with your target language; is it passing language exams? Holding a conversation with a native speaker?

If this is something you haven’t decided on yet, I recommend taking some time to define your goals in detail. When I am lacking in motivation, I remind myself of my short-term and long-term goals and how I will feel being able to achieve them.

When it comes to setting short-term goals, you might find the #clearthelist language challenges helps you to formulate and work on the goals more effectively. Here is an example from the amazing Fluent Language from May 2018.

 

  • Make sure to celebrate little victories.

Every time you feel yourself making progress, make sure to pat yourself on the back. It is easy to be demotivated when we experience setbacks, but it’s important to acknowledge the positives at the same time.

Let’s say you were having a conversation with a native speaker, but it was a little stilted. Whilst the conversation may not have flowed the way you wanted it to, you managed to get your point across and this is always something to celebrate. After all, languages are a form of communication, and being able to communicate is the important part – with more practice you will learn what sounds more natural.

When you are lacking in motivation, thinking back to the progress you have made will really help.

 

  • Take time to look back at what you’ve achieved.

This is similar to the previous point, but I find comparing what I understand now to what I understood either a few months ago or even when I first started really helps put my progress in perspective.

Think about what level you were at the start of the year – it’s quite likely that you have made more progress than you think and is a great reminder to keep going!

Having taken some time away from studying Japanese, I do tend to think about the words I used to know but have forgotten the meaning of. In order to combat this, I like to I look back at my old study notes to remind myself of the progress I have made since then.

 

  • Make or evaluate your study routine.

Sometimes a lack of motivation is linked to the nature of your current study routine. If motivation has been a consistent problem recently, it might be worth taking a look at your routine.

Are there any things that need changing? It might be that your expectations are too high and you need to set yourself a series of smaller goals every time you study. My post on simplifying your language routine might give you some ideas on how to do this.

 

  • Surround yourself with positive people.

The people that we choose to surround ourselves with can have a large impact on our motivation. By surrounding ourselves with people who understand our journey, we can get support and encouragement from them when we are struggling to carry on. This can be in the form of other language learners, teachers and tutors.

You might not know any Japanese learners in your area – don’t worry, because this is where social media is incredibly useful. I’ve found Twitter and Facebook groups in particular to be a great place to find inspiration, share stories and ask questions when you get stuck (Twitter is super popular in Japan so is especially useful!). There are also lots of great blogs out there for learning Japanese that I turn to when I need to stay motivated.

Language challenges are a great way to feel involved in the language learning community. For example:

I’ve also done my own 30-day Japanese writing challenge before which really helped motivate me to keep practising my writing skills, which I don’t practice as much as I should.

 

  • Make sure to reward yourself when you’ve finished your study session

Having a reward to look forward to at the end of the session is important, especially when faced with something that seems particularly daunting (for me, this is usually my kanji flashcard reviews!). I will treat myself to an episode of a TV show or time to play video games, with a bit of bonus time after a particularly long study session. When working towards a bigger goal like the JLPT, I tend to treat myself to something more special if I’ve hit my weekly study goals.

I hope this post helps if you’ve been finding yourself in a bit of a slump lately. The hardest part of studying is normally just getting started, so finding enough motivation to simply start is often all you need. The best thing I can recommend is to build helpful language learning habits wherever you can.

 

Have you got any tips or tricks for boosting your motivation? I’d love to hear from you in the comments section!